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Alabama Counties

Alabama currently has sixty-seven counties. The oldest county, Washington, was created on June 4, 1800, when what is now Alabama was then part of the Mississippi Territory. The newest county is Houston, created on February 9, 1903.

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Escambia County, Alabama History

Escambia County Education, Geography, and HistoryEscambia County, Alabama Courthouse

Escambia County is a county of the state of Alabama. Based on the 2010 census, the population was 38,319. Escambia County was created on December 10,1868. The county was formed from parts of Baldwin County and Connech County. Escambia county was named for the word "Escambia", it is believed to come from the Choctaw Indian language, meaning "cane-brake" or "reed-brake. The county seat is Brewton.

Etymology - Origin of Escambia County Name

The word "Escambia" is believed to come from the Choctaw Indian language, meaning "cane-brake" or "reed-brake."


County QuickFacts: Census Bureau Quick Facts

Escambia County History

Escambia County, Alabama

Historic American Indian tribes in the area included the Muskogean-speaking Creek, Choctaw, and Alabama, who had inhabited the lands for centuries and had many settlements. The former two tribes were among those in the Southeast whom the European-American settlers called the Five Civilized Tribes, as they adopted some European-American cultural ways in an attempt to survive alongside the encroachment of settlers moving into the area in the early nineteenth century. Most of these peoples were removed by United States forces in the 1830s to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.

The state made land grants to European Americans, who developed the land as large cotton plantations, based on slave labor by African Americans. Some Creek remained in the area. At the time, they were required to renounce their tribal membership and were granted US and state citizenship. They continued to live as a community and to maintain ties. In the twentieth century, the Poarch Band of Creek Indians was recognized as a tribe, established a government under a written constitution, and have certain lands that were taken into trust by the federal government. They have established three gaming resorts to generate revenues for tribal health and welfare.

Formed by the Alabama legislature on December 10, 1868 from parts of Baldwin and Conecuh counties. The word "Escambia" is believed to come from the Choctaw Indian language, meaning "cane-brake" or "reed-brake." Escambia County is located in the southern part of the state, and lies on the northern boundary of Florida. It is bordered by Monroe, Conecuh, Covington, and Baldwin Counties. It currently encompasses 951 square miles. The county seat was originally located at Pollard; in 1880 it was transferred to Brewton, which was named in honor of William Troupe Brewton, a great-nephew of the first settler of the area. Other towns and communities include Atmore and Flomaton.

The county is subject to heavy winds and rains due to seasonal hurricanes. In September 1979, the county was declared a disaster area due to damage from Hurricane Frederic. It was declared a disaster area again in September 2004 due to damage from Hurricane Ivan.

Geography: Land and Water

As reported by the Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 953 square miles (2,470 km2), of which 945 square miles (2,450 km2) is land and 8.1 square miles (21 km2) (0.8%) is water.

The Conecuh River flows southwest through the eastern half of the county, and several of its tributaries, including Burnt Corn, Murder, Cedar, and Little and Big Escambia Creeks, intersect the area.

Neighboring Counties

Bordering counties are as follows:

  • Northeast: Conecuh County
  • East: Covington County
  • Southeast: Okaloosa County, Fla.; Santa Rosa County, Fla.
  • Southwest: Escambia County, Fla.; Baldwin County
  • Northwest: Monroe County

Historic sites

Escambia County has two sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Brewton Historic Commercial District and the Commercial Hotel-Hart Hotel.


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