Illinois Counties
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Illinois Counties

There are one hundred and two counties in Illinois. St. Clair County was the first county established in what is today Illinois. Most counties in Illinois were named after early American leaders, especially of the American Revolutionary War, as well as soldiers from the Battle of Tippecanoe and the War of 1812.

Sangamon County, Illinois

Sangamon County Education, Geography, and HistorySangamon County, Illinois Courthouse

Sangamon County is a county located in the state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 197,465.  Sangamon County was created on January 30, 1821. The county seat is Springfield, the state capital. The county is named for the Sangamon River, Native American name of Sangamon meaning "the land of plenty to eat."

Sangamon County is included in the Springfield, IL Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Etymology - Origin of Sangamon County Name

The county is named for the Sangamon River, Native American name of Sangamon meaning "the land of plenty to eat."


County QuickFacts: CensusBureau Quick Facts

Sangamon County History

Sangamon County was created on January 30, 1821 (Laws, 1821, p. 45) and was formed from Bond and Madison Counties. Present area, or parts of it, formerly included in: Bond County (1817-1821), Madison County (1812-1821), St. Clair County (1790-1812) and Knox, Northwest Territory (1790-1801).

The County was named for the Sangamon River which flows through the county which derived its name from the Pottawatomie Indian word Sain-guee-mon or Sangamon, meaning literally "where there is plenty to eat" or what we would call the "land of milk and honey." The County Seat is Springfield . Prior County Seats was Springfield- Temporary designation (1821-1825) and Springfield- Permanent designation (1825-Present).

Geography: Land and Water

As reported by the Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 877 square miles (2,271 km2), of which, 868 square miles (2,249 km2) of it is land and 9 square miles (23 km2) of it (1.01%) is water.

Sangamon county is located close to the center of Illinois. Sangchris Lake State Recreation Area is located in this county.

Neighboring Counties

Bordering counties are as follows:

  • Northeast: Logan County
  • East: Macon County
  • Southeast: Christian County; Montgomery County
  • Southwest: Macoupin County
  • West: Morgan County
  • Northwest: Cass County; Menard County


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