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Tennessee Counties

There are ninety-five counties in the State of Tennessee. The oldest county is Washington County, founded in 1777. The most recently formed county is Chester County (1879)

Madison County, Tennessee

Madison County Education, Geography, and History

Madison County, Tennessee Courthouse

Madison County is a county located in the state of Tennessee. Based on the 2010 census, the population was 98,294. Its county seat is Jackson.

Madison County is included in the Jackson, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Etymology - Origin of Madison County Name

Named in honor of James Madison (1751-1836), member of the Continental Congress, the 1787 Constitutional Convention and the US Congress, US secretary of state and fourth US president.


County QuickFacts: CensusBureau Quick Facts

History of Madison County

Created 1821 from Indian lands; named in honor of James Madison (1751-1836), member of the Continental Congress, the 1787 Constitutional Convention and the US Congress, US secretary of state and fourth US president.

Madison County was formed in 1821 from Indian lands
(Public Acts of Tennessee 1821, Chapter 32).

Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture
Before statehood, West Tennessee was occupied by prehistoric Native Americans who camped and hunted there as early as 9,000 B.C., as well as much later historic tribes such as the Choctaws and Chickasaws. Woodland Culture peoples developed the large mound village site now protected by the Pinson Mounds State Archaeological Park, the site of three separate mound groups. First discovered in 1820 by surveyor Joel Pinson, the mounds remained of local interest until the 1880s, when a Smithsonian Institution archaeologist, William E. Myer, surveyed and mapped the site. Pinson Mounds is the largest Middle Woodland Period mound group in the United States and includes one mound measuring seventy-two feet, the second tallest mound in the country.

Twenty years after Tennessee statehood, the Chickasaws signed the 1818 treaty that secured the area for settlement. The first farm families came to Madison County in 1819 and settled east of Jackson in Cotton Gin Grove. In the following year, additional pioneers settled further west on the banks of the Forked Deer River in a community they named Alexandria. In 1822 Alexandria changed its name to Jackson in honor of Andrew Jackson. Jackson's sister-in-law Jane Hayes lived in the city, and Jackson played an important role in the early history of Madison County. Find more from the Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture: MADISON COUNTY

Geography: Land and Water

As reported by the Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 559 square miles (1,447 km2), of which, 557 square miles (1,443 km2) of it is land and 2 square miles (4 km2) of it (0.29%) is water.

Neighboring Counties

Bordering counties are as follows:

  • Gibson County (north)
  • Carroll County (northeast)
  • Henderson County (east)
  • Chester County (southeast)
  • Hardeman County (south)
  • Haywood County (west)
  • Crockett County (northwest)


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