Alabama Counties
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Alabama Counties

Alabama currently has sixty-seven counties. The oldest county, Washington, was created on June 4, 1800, when what is now Alabama was then part of the Mississippi Territory. The newest county is Houston, created on February 9, 1903.

Baldwin County, Alabama History

Baldwin County Education, Geography, and HistoryBaldwin County, Alabama Courthouse

Baldwin County is a county of the state of Alabama. Based on the 2010 census, the population was 182,265. The county seat is Bay Minette. Baldwin County was created on December 21, 1809 by the Mississippi Territorial legislature from territory taken from Washington County and West Florida.  The county is named in honor of Senator Abraham Baldwin, though he never lived in what is now Alabama.

The US federal government designates Baldwin County as the Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Etymology - Origin of Baldwin County Name

Georgia's 29th county was named for Abraham Baldwin, one of Georgia's two signers of the US Constitution and founder of the University of Georgia,  though he never lived in what is now Alabama.


County QuickFacts: CensusBureau Quick Facts

Baldwin County History

Baldwin County, Alabama

Around 1802, the Creek Indians and United States commissioners signed the Treaty of Fort Wilkinson, which separated Creek lands in two different areas to Georgia. The northern part involved land west of the Oconee River, which the legislature split into two new counties - Baldwin and Wilkinson - in1803 on the 11th day of May. Georgia's 29th county was named for Abraham Baldwin, one of Georgia's two signers of the US Constitution and founder of the University of Georgia. Around 1805, the Creeks signed the Treaty of Washington, which extended Georgia westward to the Ocmulgee River. An act of June 26, 1806 added lands ceded by the Creeks to Baldwin and Wilkinson counties. In 1807 on the 10th day of Dec., the legislature divided Baldwin County into four new counties - Morgan, Jones, Putnam, and Randolph (which was renamed Jasper). In the same act, Baldwin County was agreed land east of the Oconee River from Hancock and Washington counties

Baldwin County's first courthouse was a log cabin owned by George Hill in the resolution of Hillsborough. Here, the first court session was held in 1806 on the 26th day of June. Around Dec. 1807, the legislature created four new counties from Baldwin, with Hillsborough transferred to newly created Randolph (later renamed Jasper) County. At the same session, the legislature elected Milledgeville as the new county seat of Baldwin County and allowed county court sessions to be held in the state capitol. In 1808 the 22nd day of Dec., the General Assembly authorized Baldwin County to levy a tax to construct a courthouse on the southeast corner of Penitentiary Square. Until the courthouse could be erected, county court sessions were to be held in a rented house. Baldwin County's first real courthouse was completed in 1814 at a cost of $3,975 dollars. This building was used until replaced by a larger courthouse built on the same site around 1847. This courthouse burned around 1861, after which court sessions were held in the Georgia Capitol, the Milledgeville Opera House, and the local Masonic Hall. In 1883, the legislature authorized Baldwin County to borrow up to $25,000 to construct four fireproof county offices, as well as a courthouse, on the site of the former courthouse. Around 1885, work began on the new courthouse, which was completed around 1887. This courthouse was remodeled in 1937 and 1965. In 1990, planning began on a new courthouse. After local option sales tax referendums were approved in 1990 and 1992, construction of a new courthouse began in 1995 and was completed in 1997.

Geography: Land and Water

As reported by the Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,027 square miles (5,250 km2), of which 1,590 square miles (4,100 km2) is land and 438 square miles (1,130 km2) (21.6%) is water.

Baldwin County is located in the southernmost part of the state. It lies fully within the East Gulf Coastal Plain physiographic section. It is the largest county by area in Alabama and the 12th-largest county east of the Mississippi River. It is larger than the US state of Rhode Island.

Neighboring Counties

Bordering counties are as follows:

  • North: Clarke County
  • Northeast: Monroe County; Escambia County
  • East: Escambia County, Fla.
  • South: Gulf of Mexico
  • West: Mobile County
  • Northwest: Washington County


The Baldwin County Board of Education oversees most public education in the county. Numerous private and parochial schools also serve the area.

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