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Texas Counties

Texas is divided into two hundred and fifty-four counties, more than any other state. Texas was originally divided into municipalities, a unit of local government under Spanish and Mexican rule. When the Republic of Texas gained its independence in 1836, there were 23 municipalities, which became the original Texas counties. Many of these would later be divided into new counties. The most recent county to be created was Kenedy County in 1921. The most recent county to be organized was Loving County in 1931

Mills County, Texas

Mills County Education, Geography, and History

Mills County, Texas Courthouse

Mills County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in Central Texas. Based on the 2010 census, its population was 4,936. The county seat is Goldthwaite. The county is named for John T. Mills, a justice of the Texas Supreme Court.

Etymology - Origin of Mills County Name

John T. Mills, an early judge in Texas


County QuickFacts: CensusBureau Quick Facts

Mills County History

Mills County is a county located in the US state of Texas. Mills County is named for John T. Mills, a justice of the Texas Supreme Court. The seat of the county is Goldthwaite

Handbook of Texas Online
During the Civil War and for decades thereafter whites caused settlers more trouble than Indians, as cattle rustlers, horse thieves, murderers, army deserters, and other rogues infested the area. Vigilante committees were formed to deal with criminals, but then these groups degenerated into warring mobs committing criminal acts themselves. A reign of terror followed conflicts between vigilante groups, which broke out in Williams Ranch in 1869. Vigilantes drove out some bad characters, but killed other innocent men; lynchings and assassinations became commonplace. The turbulence lasted until 1897, when the Texas Rangers finally broke up a group of vigilantes who frequently gathered at Buzzard Roost. The first post office in what is now Mills County was established in Williams Ranch in 1877, and the place became a center for the area; between 1881 and 1884 250 people lived there. In 1885 the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe Railway built tracks into the region, stimulating settlement and demands for organization. In 1887 the Texas state legislature carved Mills County from lands formerly assigned to Brown, Comanche, Hamilton, and Lampasas counties. Goldthwaite became the county seat. In 1890 5,493 people lived in Mills County. By that time, the area's agricultural economy was already fairly well-established. The county had 680 farms and ranches, encompassing 142,299 acres, that year. Ranching was an important part of county life; almost 25,000 cattle and 23,000 sheep were reported. Crop farming was also well-established in the county by this time. Cotton had first been planted in the area in 1864; by 1890 7,000 acres in Mills County were planted in the fiber, 7,200 acres in corn, 3,500 acres in oats, and 2,800 acres in wheat. After 1890 cotton became increasingly important and soon supplanted cattle as the county's leading industry. Almost 22,000 acres were planted in cotton in 1900 and almost 46,000 in 1910. By that time there were 1,484 farms in Mills County, and the population had increased to 9,694. More at
William R. Hunt and John Leffler, "MILLS COUNTY," Handbook of Texas Online (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/hcm14), accessed January 24, 2016. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

Geography: Land and Water

As reported by the Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 750 square miles (1,942 km2), of which, 748 square miles (1,938 km2) of it is land and 2 square miles (5 km2) of it (0.24%) is water.

Neighboring Counties

Bordering counties are as follows:

  • Comanche County (north)
  • Hamilton County (northeast)
  • Lampasas County (southeast)
  • San Saba County (southwest)
  • Brown County (northwest)


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