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The Commonwealth of Virginia is divided into ninety-five counties and thirty-eight independent cities, which are considered county-equivalents for census purposes.

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City of Winchester , Virginia

City of Winchester Education, Geography, and HistoryWinchester, Virginia City Hall

Winchester is an independent city located in the northwestern portion of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Based on the 2010 census, the population was 26,203. It is the county seat of Frederick County, although the two are separate jurisdictions. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Winchester with surrounding Frederick County for statistical purposes.

Winchester is the principal city of the Winchester, Virginia-West Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area

Etymology - Origin of City of Winchester Name

The City of Winchester, in Frederick County, was first known as Opequon, then as Frederick's Town (or Fredericktown), and, finally, upon establishment as a town in 1752, as Winchester. According to tradition, one of the town's founders, James Wood, named the town in honor of his birthplace in England.


County QuickFacts: City of Winchester

Winchester City History

Winchester is an independent city located in the state of Virginia. It is the county seat of Frederick County. Once a Shawnee Indian camping ground, Winchester was founded in 1744 by Colonel James Wood and is the oldest city in the Commonwealth west of the Blue Ridge Mountains.

Winchester, Virginia established in 1752. [Virginia Genealogy, Sources & Resources, by Carol McGinnis, Genealogical Publishing Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1993.]

Winchester, Virginia was incorporated as a town in 1779. Established in 1752 and first called Opequon and later Frederick's Town (Frederickstown). Incorporated as a city in 1874. Portion of Frederick County, Virginia annexed in 1970. County seat for Frederick County Virginia. [Virginia Genealogy, Sources & Resources, by Carol McGinnis, Genealogical Publishing Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1993.]

Chronological History of Winchester

Additional information about the history of Winchester can be found at the Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society website.

1744 - Town of Winchester founded by Col. James Wood on land granted to Thomas, Lord Fairfax.

1748 - George Washington makes his first trip to Winchester at age 16 as a Land Surveyor.

1752 - Town of Winchester chartered by the Virginia General Assembly.

1754 - Abram's Delight built- oldest known remaining house in the City is now a house museum.

1756 - Fort Loudoun erected in City under guidance of George Washington during French & Indian War.

1758 - Geo. Washington first elected to public office as local rep. to Virginia House of Burgesses. At his death in 1799, Washington would be attended by three physicians, one of whom was Dr. Craig from Winchester.

1775 - Daniel Morgan leads riflemen on famous bee-line Revolutionary War march to Boston.

1808 - Central water system installed in Winchester- one of the earliest public water systems in US.

1821 - Public Market House/Town Offices built- early rules for sanitary meat, produce sales & handling.

1823 - Agricultural Society of the Valley organized- Winchester area serves as major wheat producer.

1826 - Medical School of the Valley of Virginia founded- produces the first graduating class in Virginia.

1836 - Valley Turnpike macadamized- private toll road Company opens Valley for economic prosperity

1837 - Winchester and Potomac Railroad completed- opens faster market route to Baltimore ports

1840 - Frederick County Courthouse built- excellent Greek Revival structure, now a Civil War museum

1843 - Mt. Hebron cemetery organized- early community cemetery. Chateauesque Gatehouse built in 1902

1859 - Trial of John Brown presided over by Judge Richard Parker from Winchester. Also, the cadaver of John Brown's son Owen was brought to Winchester by med school students. Ironically, the first casualty of Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry Arsenal is depot manager, Heywood Shepherd, a free black man from Winchester.

1862-1864 - Civil War- Winchester changes hands approx. 70 times between Union & Confederate occupation.

1862 - First Battle of Kernstown (March 23)- Gen. Thomas 'Stonewall' Jackson's only battle loss, but was a strategic victory for the Confederacy because it diverted Union reinforcements from Peninsula Campaign along the eastern shore of Virginia. Jackson's personal physician, Dr. Hunter Holmes McGuire of Winchester later would amputate Jackson's arm and attend to him until his death later that year. McGuire was credited with originating the custom of immediately releasing medical officers upon their capture during war. This would later be incorporated into the Geneva Convention.

1862 - First Battle of Winchester (May 25)- Jackson's Army soundly defeats Union forces in Winchester.

1863 - Second Battle of Winchester (June 13-15)- Confederate victory was a prelude to Gettysburg.

1864 - Second Battle of Kernstown (July 24) - Union Army badly defeated by Gen. Jubal Early. The First and Second battles of Kernstown were on approximately the same ground. The City of Winchester and County of Frederick assisted the local non-profit Kernstown Battlefield Association to acquire most of the core battlefield site straddling the City-County line in the late 1990's.

1864 - Battle of Cedar Creek (Oct 19)- just south of Winchester. Major Union victory seals Lincoln's reelection and leads to Gen. Sheridan's burning of the Shenandoah Valley.

1866 - Stonewall (Confederate) Cemetery dedicated within boundary of Mt. Hebron Cemetery.

1866 - National (Union) Cemetery dedicated- a "stone's throw"away from confederate cemetery.

1874 - Town of Winchester becomes City of Winchester, independent of the surrounding County

1884 - John Kerr School opens- first "modern"public school named for local childless cabinet-maker John Kerr, whose will provides for funding education of poor children of Winchester.

1895 - Judge John Handley's bequest- Pennsylvania Judge loves "southern City"and bequeaths funding for Handley High School, Handley Library, School for Black Students, and ongoing private endowment for Winchester public schools. City school children still march to his grave at Mt. Hebron to honor him in May of every year.

1900 -Rouss City Hall built- Native Charles Broadway Rouss, who goes pennies-to-riches with NYC dept store chain contributes half the funding of City Hall. Turns blind and too sick to see building completed. Rouss also donates Rouss Fire Hall & public water works in City and Rouss Hall at Univ. of Va.

1903 - Winchester Memorial Hospital opens- moves to suburban campus in 1990 and becomes one of seven largest medical centers in Virginia. Now represents largest employer in the region.

1913 - Handley Library opens- considered finest example of Beaux-Art structure in Virginia

1923 - Willa Cather, local County resident, wins the Pulitzer Prize

1923 - Handley High School opens- architecture inspired by Jefferson's Univ of Va. Grounds in front of the school designed by nationally renowned Olmstead Brothers including elements incorporated into Frederick Law Olmstead's plan for Central Park in New York City. School basement served as a secret vault for the Corcoran Art Gallery in Washington, D.C. and housed over $1 Million worth of art treasures during WWII.

Spottswood (Spotsy) Poles, born in 1886 in Winchester, retired from a notable professional baseball career in the Negro Leagues. He was known as the "Black Ty Cobb" given his speed, batting average, and bases stolen.

1924 - First Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival- grand marshal's have included: Bob Hope, Lucille Ball, Bing Crosby, Robert Wagner, Hal Linden, and Dan Akroyd. Sport's Marshal's have included Hank Aaron, Willie Mays, Sugar Ray Robinson, Tony Dorsett, and Joe Theismann.

1925 - Local native Harry F. Byrd, Sr. elected governor of Virginia. Famous as a conservative "pay-as-you-go" democrat. Goes on to become US Senator. Winchester resident Harry Byrd, Jr. follows in father's footsteps. Byrd "Machine"considered one of the strongest ever in US state government.

1927 - Douglas School opens for African-American children of Winchester to replace overcrowded facility in Old Stone Presbyterian Church. The school is named in honor of abolitionist Frederick Douglass. All City schools were integrated in 1966 at which time it became an intermediate school. Today it is known as the Douglas Learning Center.

1929 - Admiral Richard E. Byrd's first Antarctic mission. Credited with first flight to North Pole also.

1930 - Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society formed- refurbishes oldest house and operates 3 museums in historic structures: Abrams Delight; Stonewall Jackson HQ; and Geo Washington Office.

1930's - John Kirby, famed Black Jazz musician raised in Winchester, performed with Chick Webb and Fletcher Henderson Bands in New York City. Went on to become a famed recording artist on Columbia, Decca, and RCA Victor labels including performances with Benny Goodman.

1944 - German POW's housed in City during WW II. Work to help local industry while US servicemen overseas.

1960 - Shenandoah College (now University) relocates to Winchester - City businessmen convince small music conservatory to move and build new campus. Aggressive growth leads to prominent university offering undergraduate and graduate business School, extensive health profession studies, arts, and general studies for over 2400 students today.

1964 - Preservation of Historic Winchester (PHW) founded- grassroots nonprofit spearheads preservation of numerous properties in Old Town. Promotes establishment of Historic District established in 1967.

1973 - Patsy Cline (b. 1932) elected to the Country Music Hall of Fame- local soda fountain waitress sings her way to Nashville and on to international fame even after tragic plane crash in 1963. Married on steps of home in downtown Winchester. Buried just outside Winchester.

1984 - Joint Judicial Center dedicated- Winchester City and neighboring County of Frederick consolidate court facilities in new downtown building 14 years after contentious annexation. Spirit of cooperation is further strengthened in mid-1990's with agreements that keep County offices in downtown Winchester. Numerous joint projects undertaken between the two local governments.

1991 - Kurtz Cultural Center opens- historic structure saved from wrecking ball in 1988 becomes home to a variety of community functions over the years including PHW, Chamber of Commerce, and Old Town Development Board.

(Based upon chronology prepared by City's Planning Director, Tim Youmans and Rebecca Ebert at the Handley Archives and available at the Winchester-Frederick County Economic Development Website)

Geography: Land and Water

It is in the Shenandoah Valley, between the Blue Ridge and the Appalachian Mountains. I-81 passes through the city, along with US-50, US-522, US-17, which ends in the city, and VA-7, which also ends in the city. The city is approximately 75 miles (121 km) to the west of Washington, D.C.

As reported by the Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.3 square miles (24.2 km2), all of it land.

Neighboring Counties

Bordering counties are as follows:

  • It is the county seat of Frederick County


Winchester is home to Shenandoah University.

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