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Indiana Counties

Indiana is divided into ninety-two counties. The oldest and newest Counties in Indiana are Knox County (created 1790) and Newton County (created 1857).Many Indiana counties are named for the US Founding Fathers and personalities of the American Revolutionary War, the War of 1812 and Battle of Tippecanoe; early leaders of Indiana Territory and Indiana, as well as surrounding states like Michigan and Kentucky; plus Native American tribes and geographical features.

Randolph County, Indiana

Randolph County Education, Geography, and HistoryRandolph County, Indiana Courthouse

Randolph County is a county located in the state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 26,171. Randolph County was created on August 10, 1818. The county seat is Winchester. The county is named for Randolph County, North Carolina, which is itself named for first President of the Continental Congress Peyton Randolph.

Etymology - Origin of Randolph County Name

The Naming of Randolph County - some sources suggest that the county was named for President Thomas Jefferson's first cousin, Thomas Randolph, who was Attorney General for Governor William Henry Harrison and was killed in the Battle of Tippecanoe. Historian Charles Roll indicates that Randolph County was named after Thomas Randolph, but Gregory Hinshaw makes a very strong case in the March 2002 issue of the Indiana Magazine of History that the county was so named because so many of the early settlers came from Randolph County, North Carolina.


County QuickFacts: CensusBureau Quick Facts

Randolph County History

Randolph County was organized August 10, 1818. There is a dispute as to the origin of the name. Some say that the County was named for Randolph County, North Carolina where the areas first settlers came from. That County was named for Peyton Randolph, the first President of the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation.

Another version is that the County was named for President Thomas Jefferson's first cousin, Thomas Randolph, who was Attorney General for the Indiana Territory, and who was killed in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. One problem with this story is whether Thomas Randolph was killed at Tippecanoe. There was a Thomas Randolph listed in Capt. Benjamin Parke's Troop of Light Dragoons, but this Randolph is not shown as killed.

The obvious namesake would be Gov. Edmund Randolph of Virginia, who signed the law transferring the Northwest Territory from Virginia to the United States, allowing for the formation of the Indiana Territory. Edmund was the nephew of Peyton Randolph, and the executor of his estate. Historians have, however, studied this and rejected the obvious conclusion.

All of the above Randolphs were related, so that one can safely conclude that the County was named for this important, early colonial family.

Geography: Land and Water

As reported by the Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 453 square miles (1,174 km2), of which 453 square miles (1,173 km2) is land and 0 square miles (1 km2) (0.09%) is water.

Randolph county is located in east Indiana. The county is the point of origin for the White River and Whitewater River.

As of June 22, 2004, Randolph Farms Landfill, owned by the Balkema family in Kalamazoo, Michigan, is seeking a zoning exception allowing it to expand into 320 acres (1.3 km2), in order to keep it in operation for a further 50 years. This would make the landfill, already one of the largest in the county, the point of highest elevation in the state of Indiana. Opponents, including the majority of the county residents, have been vocal against expansion, pointing out the possible effects landfill toxins could cause on aquifers and on agriculture. The landfill has twice been denied a petition to expand.

Neighboring Counties

Bordering counties are as follows:

  • North: Jay County
  • East: Darke County, Ohio
  • South: Wayne County
  • Southwest: Henry County
  • Northwest: Delaware County


Public schools in Randolph County are administered by the Union School Corporation, Randolph Central School Corporation, Randolph Eastern School Corporation, Randolph Southern School Corporation, and Monroe Central School Corporation.

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