The Cutthroat Trout, (Oncorhynchus clarki utah,) was adopted in 1977 as Utah's state fish. The cutthroat trout has 15 recognized subspecies, one of which is the Bonneville Cutthroat. Senate Bill 236, in the 1997 Legislature, adopted the Bonneville Cutthroat as the state fish after having the Rainbow Trout since 1971. The Bonneville Cutthroat is native to Utah and was important to the Indians and the Mormon pioneers as a source of food. There are some that speculate the pioneers were saved from starvation many times by catching and eating fish but claim it wasn't necessarily the trout that they ate but carp.
All cutthroat trout have a "cut," a patch of orange or red on the throat and they differ from the rainbow trout because they have basibranchial (hyoid) teeth in their throat between the gill arches, they typically have longer heads and jaws than the rainbow and often times can be distinguished from the rainbow by their larger spots. The cutthroat is known to be more vulnerable to anglers because of a general lack of wariness and can be caught on a wide variety of bait.
Bonneville cutthroats were once widespread in all major streams on the east side of what is now Great Basin National Park, in east-central Nevada (which in turn borders Utah on the west). However, they were severely reduced by introduced trout species, water diversions, and other human activities. In fact, most streams within the park are no longer inhabited by Bonneville cutthroats.
It is named for Lake Bonneville, which occupied much of western Utah during the Ice Age. As the climate became warmer and drier, Lake Bonneville shrank drastically. Today, the largest souvenir of this ancient lake is Utah's Great Salt Lake, the largest body of water between the Great Lakes and the Pacific Ocean and the largest salt lake in the western hemisphere. Since ancient Lake Bonneville dried up 8,000 years ago in what is now eastern Nevada and Utah, Bonneville cutthroat trout, (Oncorhynchus clarki utah,) have persisted in the isolated small mountain streams of the eastern Great Basin. Unfortunately, water diversions, subsistence harvest, and especially stocking with nonnative fish caused the extirpation of the Bonneville cutthroat trout from most of its range. The local extinction was so widespread that the US Fish and Wildlife Service is now conducting a second status review for listing the trout under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. However, Great Basin National Park near Baker, Nevada, on the Nevada-Utah border provided a unique opportunity to promote conservation of the trout and potentially preclude the need for listing it in eastern Nevada.The Bonneville cutthroat trout was believed to be extinct in Great Basin National Park because past surveys revealed only nonnative hatchery fish or hybrids of the Bonneville cutthroat and rainbow trout (O. mykiss). After the park established a reintroduction program for the trout in 1998, a survey in one stream system of the park in 2000 revealed only fish with strong characteristics of the Bonneville cutthroat trout. Subsequent genetic analysis of fin tissues confirmed the presence of a pure population of the species. The timely discovery of the trout was fortunate because cleansing of the stream system with chemicals to remove the nonnative trout and the hybrids that were thought to be there was planned as the next step in the reintroduction program. Instead of being inadvertently annihilated, the population is now being genetically compared with other populations of the Bonneville cutthroat trout in nearby streams. If appropriate, the preservation of the genetic stock that developed in the park will be attempted. With discovery of this population, a source stock became available for reintroductions elsewhere in the park. The park established a new population of Bonneville cutthroat trout in a stream of another watershed by transplanting 60 trout from the source stock. Another historical Bonneville cutthroat trout stream has been chemically cleansed to remove the nonnative fish and hybrids in preparation for a reintroduction of Bonneville cutthroat trout in 2001. Private landowners adjacent to the park supported a more diversified fishery and allowed chemical cleansing of streams on their lands. The extension of cleansing beyond park boundaries may facilitate restoration of a native fishery throughout an entire watershed.
S.B. 236 Enrolled
STATE FISH AMENDMENTS
1997 GENERAL SESSION
STATE OF UTAH
Sponsor: Pete Suazo
AN ACT RELATING TO STATE FISH; DESIGNATING THE BONNEVILLE CUTTHROAT
AS THE STATE FISH.
This act affects sections of Utah Code Annotated 1953 as follows:
63-13-7.3, as enacted by Chapter 161, Laws of Utah 1971
Be it enacted by the Legislature of the state of Utah:
Section 1. Section 63-13-7.3 is amended to read:
63-13-7.3. State fish.
The [rainbow] Bonneville cutthroat trout is hereby selected and designated to be the state fish of Utah.
State Symbols and Designations
63G-1-601. State symbols.
(1) Utah's state animal is the elk.
(2) Utah's state bird is the sea gull.
(3) Utah's state centennial astronomical symbol is the Beehive Cluster located in the constellation of Cancer the Crab.
(4) Utah's state centennial star is Dubhe, one of the seven bright stars composing the Big Dipper in the constellation Ursa Major.
(5) Utah's state centennial tartan, which honors the first Scots known to have been in Utah and those Utahns of Scottish heritage, shall have a pattern or repeating-half-sett of white-2, blue-6, red-6, blue-4, red-6, green-18, red-6, and white-4 to represent the tartan worn anciently by the Logan and Skene clans, with the addition of a white stripe.
(6) Utah's state cooking pot is the dutch oven.
(7) Utah's state emblem is the beehive.
(8) Utah's state emblem of service and sacrifice of lives lost by members of the military in defense of our freedom is the "Honor and Remember" flag, which consists of:
(a) a red field covering the top two-thirds of the flag;
(b) a white field covering the bottom one-third of the flag, which contains the words "honor" and "remember";
(c) a blue star overlaid by a gold star with a thin white border in the center of the flag spanning the red field and the white field; and
(d) a representation of a folded United States flag beneath the blue and gold stars with three tongues of flame emanating from its top point into the center of the gold star.
(9) Utah's state firearm is the John M. Browning designed M1911 automatic pistol.
(10) Utah's state fish is the Bonneville cutthroat trout.
(11) Utah's state flower is the sego lily.
(12) Utah's state folk dance is the square dance, the folk dance that is called, cued, or prompted to the dancers and includes squares, rounds, clogging, contra, line, and heritage dances.
(13) Utah's state fossil is the Allosaurus.
(14) Utah's state fruit is the cherry.
(15) Utah's state vegetable is the Spanish sweet onion.
(16) Utah's historic state vegetable is the sugar beet.
(17) Utah's state gem is topaz, as is prominently found in the Thomas Mountain Range in Juab County, Utah.
(18) Utah's state grass is Indian rice grass.
(19) Utah's state hymn is "Utah We Love Thee" by Evan Stephens.
(20) Utah's state insect is the honeybee.
(21) Utah's state mineral is copper.
(22) Utah's state motto is "Industry."
(23) Utah's state railroad museum is Ogden Union Station.
(24) Utah's state rock is coal.
(25) Utah's state song is "Utah This is the Place" by Sam and Gary Francis.
(26) Utah's state tree is the quaking aspen.
(27) Utah's state winter sports are skiing and snowboarding.
Amended by Chapter 46, 2014 General Session
|Kingdom||Animalia -- animals|
|Species||(Salmo clarki) to (Oncorhynchus clarki utah)|
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