Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag

US FlagUS Flag: The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag Pledge

Adopted on September 8, 1892



The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag1

I pledge allegiance to the Flag2 of the United States of America3, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God,4 indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

1. The original pledge was published in the Sept. 8, 1892, issue of The Youth's Companion in Boston. For years, the authorship was in dispute between James B. Upham and Francis Bellamy of the magazine's staff. In 1939, after a study of the controversy, the United States Flag Association decided that authorship be credited to Bellamy. The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag of the United States, according to James A. Moss, an authority on the flag and its history, was first given national publicity through the official program of the National Public School Celebration of Columbus Day in October 1892. The Pledge had been published in the Youth's Companion for September 8, 1892, and at the same time sent out in leaflet form throughout the country. During the Celebration it was repeated by more than 12,000,000 public school pupils in every state in the Union.

The wording of the Pledge has been modified three times.

2. On June 14, 1923, at the First National Flag Conference held in Washington, D.C., under the 'leadership of the American Legion and the Daughters of the American Revolution, changed the Pledge's words. The latter words were added on the ground that some foreign-born children and adults when giving the Pledge might have in mind the flag of their native land. In 1923, the words "the flag of the United States" were substituted for "my flag."

pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States,

3. In 1924, "of America" was added.

of the United States of America,

4. The phrase "under God" was added to the pledge on June 14, 1954.

one nation under God, indivisible.

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